Nepi, city of waters (Nepa is the Etruscan word for water) is a small town that is located on a spur of tuff cut to the north and south by two gorges. Originally it was a Faliscan settlement, highly influenced by Etruscan culture: later, after the Roman conquest, became, along with Sutri, the first Latin colony of Rome (383 BC). Sacked several times during the barbarian invasions, grew in importance during the Dark Ages, as it was located along the Via Amerina, the only connection between Rome and Ravenna during the Gothic War (535-554 AD). In the early Middle Ages it has been for a short time a free commune, than it has been annexed to the Papal State. The town was fortified at the end of the 15th c. by Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), who built the square fortress with four circular towers. In 1537 Nepi was subjected to the Farnese’s family, which added the Farnesian bastions. Theaqueduct of Nepi, built in 1727, intersect the fortification by a monumental double row of arches: what results is an highly suggestive scenario. The Co-cathedral Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta dates from the late 15th c.: the interior has a basilica plan, with five naves separated by pillars; under the apsidal chancel lies the crypt ad oratorium (11th c.), supported by 24 columns and pilasters. From the Church of San Tolomeo alle Sante Grotteyou access the underground complex of the Catacombe di Santa Savinilla, a late-imperial cemetery: it consists of three main galleries and numerous tunnels dug into the lithoid tuff. Along the walls are piled different kinds of burials: arcosolia, niches, tombe a mensa. The site preserves frescoes dating from the 13th c.