Barbarano Romano is located on a triangular tufa plateau. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the settlement is permanently occupied since the Dark Ages. The importance Barbarano reached during the Middle Ages is proved by the existence of a triple ring of walls: the first one (11° c.) is part of the so-called “castle”; the second one, equipped with square towers, dates back to the 13° c.; the third one (15° c.) had circular towers, stronger against the new firearms. The “castle” no longer exists: the so-called area is now occupied by the oldest buildings, including the Town Hall, all of them built with blocks of tufa. Characteristics cellars dug into the tufa surround Barbarano, at the foot of the plateau.
Marturanum Regional Park covers an area of 1240 ha (3064 ac) characterized by large tufa valleys, covered with dense vegetation, where two major rivers flow: Vesca and Biedano.
Inside the park there is the hill of San Giuliano, which takes its name from a small Romanesque church situated on its top: on the reddish tuff slopes of the hill lies the large and impressive Etruscan rocky necropolis of San Giuliano.
The site is home to important archaeological remains dating back to the Villanovan (9° c. BC). The whole Etruscan age is well documented: Orientalizing by circular burial mounds, Archaic by cube and semicube tombs, Hellenistic by Tomba del Cervo (tomb of the deer) characterized by the great semicube room used to house dozens of sarcophagi of the same family. The facade is decorated with a false door Doric, beyond which a long hallway (dromos) leads to the room.
The cube is flanked by two stairways: on the left one there is a bas-relief depicting a deer attacked by a wolf or a dog (that gives it its name). After the destruction of Veii (396 b.C.) began the inexorable decline of the Etruscan civilization: the inhabitants of these places took refuge on the height of San Giuliano, where they built the high defensive tuff walls that still exist. After the conquest, the Romans linked the settlement by means of the Via Clodia, of which remain visible parts. Several quarry roads cross the park.
The site was definitively abandoned in the Middle Ages (11° c.).